Dvara Analysis Weblog | Making UPI bills extra customer-centric for new-to-UPI customers






Via Dvara Analysis and Centre for Social and Behavioural Exchange, Ashoka College

The collection of virtual transactions happening in in India is emerging ceaselessly [1]. The Reserve Financial institution of India estimates 26 crore virtual bills are processed each day [2]. Round one-third of Indian families, together with 1 / 4 of families within the poorest 40% bracket appear to be making those virtual bills [3]. UPI bills account for nearly two-thirds of those 26 crore virtual bills processed day by day [4]. But, the Nationwide Bills Company of India (NPCI) anticipates a large “suppressed call for” the place individuals are prepared however don’t seem to be in a position to use virtual bills [5]. Dvara Analysis’s paintings in adjoining contexts of womens’ use of cell phone and the paintings of different students in jurisdictions very similar to India counsel that this suppressed call for may also be attributed to quite a few boundaries like, capacity gaps, social norms, issue in the usage of virtual services and products, and perceptions of chance [6][7]. Then again, literature inspecting boundaries that new-to-tech customers face in having access to virtual bills via UPI is scant.

With this purpose in thoughts, Dvara Analysis along with the Centre for Social and Behavioural Exchange (CSBC) undertook a learn about to –

  1. Perceive the demanding situations new-to-UPI customers[i] face when the usage of UPI-based virtual fee apps (DPAs); and their perceptions, behaviour, and information in regard to DPAs.
  2. Synthesise design rules that may make those DPAs intuitive and faithful for new-to-UPI customers.  
  3. Incorporate safeguards in DPAs that may mitigate dangers to customers and minimise boundaries because of capacity gaps.

This learn about used to be performed via a donation from WhatsApp Pay. All subject material created underneath this learn about is made to be had as a public just right, obtainable via this web page

Technique and Pattern

This learn about accommodates 3 phases (i) literature overview, (ii) quantitative learn about to grasp customers’ perceptions of DPAsand, (iii)  lab-in-the-field experiment to grasp their lived enjoy of interfacing with DPAs.

Degree 1: Related literature from India and international locations with identical contexts used to be reviewed. The insights from this literature overview have been used to tell the quantitative learn about within the level 2. The findings from this level had been summarised on this blog-post.

Degree 2: A quantitative survey used to be administered amongst 262 respondents in Ernakulam/Kochi and Wayanad (low and high virtual inclusion districts, respectively) in Kerala (prime virtual inclusion state) and Gautam Buddha Nagar and Sitapur (low and high virtual inclusion districts, respectively) in Uttar Pradesh (low virtual inclusion state) (Determine 1). The respondents have been allotted throughout 3 focal point teams – ladies, migrant staff, and gig staff (conventional and virtual gig staff).

Determine 1: Pattern traits of the Learn about | Representation: Centre for Social and Behavioural Exchange

Pattern demographics by way of respondent teams

This survey helped perceive (i) customers’ stories with the usage of DPAs, and (ii) the impact of demographic variables (Determine 1) and mental variables (Determine 2) on customers’ adoption and utilization of DPAs.

Determine 2: Mental variables examined within the Learn about.

Degree 3:  In-depth qualitative interviews have been performed with 25 respondents in Gautam Buddha Nagar, Uttar Pradesh, from the bigger pattern of 262 respondents. Those 25 respondents have been decided on in some way that would lend a hand higher perceive customers’ stories with other DPAs (Google Pay, PayTM, PhonePe, and WhatsApp Pay). Customers’ stories with the usage of a DPA that they don’t most often use have been noticed via a Usability Trying out workout.[ii] Stakeholder conversations have been additionally undertaken with visitor coverage professionals and a few DPA representatives to create a rounded view of pathways to designing visitor centric DPAs. The findings from each and every level of the learn about will likely be revealed on our web page over a chain of posts. The quantitative dataset (anonymised) will likely be made to be had on request.

Talk over with our web page for more info.

[i] ‘New-to-UPI’ customers seek advice from customers who need to use UPI however are not able to because of quite a few elements like low literacy, low virtual literacy, and occasional source of revenue. It does no longer come with customers who’re not able to make use of UPI because of structural boundaries like loss of ICT connectivity, smartphone availability and many others.

[ii] The findings from this workout don’t establish particular DPAs that have been used for usability checking out in each and every interview in Degree 3.

Cite this weblog:


Dvara Analysis and Centre for Social and Behavioural Exchange, A. U. (2022). Making UPI bills extra customer-centric for new-to-UPI customers. Retrieved from Dvara Analysis.


Dvara Analysis and Centre for Social and Behavioural Exchange, Ashoka College. “Making UPI bills extra customer-centric for new-to-UPI customers.” 2022. Dvara Analysis.


Dvara Analysis and Centre for Social and Behavioural Exchange, Ashoka College. 2022. “Making UPI bills extra customer-centric for new-to-UPI customers.” Dvara Analysis.

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